If you’re considering applying to immigrate to or seek refugee protection in Canada, it’s essential to understand the key terms commonly used in this area of law. Immigration is complex and involves several steps that may be difficult to navigate for someone who does not have experience with the process.
Immigration law is a broad term that refers to all laws relating to people moving from one country to another. This includes people moving permanently or temporarily, refugees or asylum seekers seeking refuge in another country because they fear persecution in their home country. In this blog post, we review some of the most common acronyms that relate to immigration law.
The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is the administrative agency responsible for the flow of travellers and international trade.
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is a federal government administrative body responsible for the arrival of immigrants, providing protection to refugees, and programs that help other foreign nationals settle in Canada. It is also responsible for granting citizenship and issuing Canadian travel documents.
The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) is the legislation that outlines the rules of immigration and refugee protection in Canada. Under the IRPA, the Minister has the authority to develop additional rules, which become part of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (IRPR). While the IRPA tends to stay the same, the IRPR are updated more easily and should be regularly consulted by the immigration professionals handling your matter.
The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) is the largest administrative tribunal in Canada. It makes decisions pertaining to immigration and refugee matters to ensure fairness, efficiency, and compliance with the law. It also determines who gets refugee protection in Canada. The IRB is independent of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) but reports to Parliament through IRCC.
The Immigration Division (ID) is the branch of the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) that oversees hearings to determine whether a foreign national or permanent resident is admissible to enter and stay in Canada or if they should be removed. The ID takes action at the request of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) or the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). It also reviews the reasons for detention when a permanent resident or foreign national is detained.
The Immigration Appeal Division (IAD) is the branch of the IRB that hears appeals about immigration-related decisions. Specifically, the appeals it hears are as follows:
The Refugee Protection Division (RPD) decides on claims made by refugees who are in Canada. This is the start of the refugee protection process for claims that have already been deemed eligible by the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB).
The Refugee Appeal Division makes decisions on appeals from the Refugee Protection Division (RPD) to allow or reject refugee protection claims. The RAD can change the RPD’s decision, send the decision back to the RPD to be heard once more, or confirm the RPD’s decision.
The Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) assesses the ability of newcomers to Canada to speak English or French.
Humanitarian and compassionate grounds (H&C) is a means to enter Canada for those who do not qualify for other immigration programs. It is available in exceptional circumstances to those applying for permanent residence. H&C is not a viable option if refugee protection is required.
The National Occupation Classification (NOC) is a standardized system that classifies jobs. This is used to assess worker qualifications for those with experience outside of Canada.
The Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) is an immigration program available to individuals interested in settling in a particular province of Canada. Most provinces have programs for attracting workers with the requisite skills, education, and experience to contribute to the province’s economy. It is a program for those who wish to obtain permanent residency in Canada.
A port of entry (POE) is a legal place where individuals can enter Canada. The Government of Canada dictates POEs. It is the first airport or land crossing that you stop at in Canada. Every person is subject to examination at every POE, which usually requires the presentation of identification documents and will question you about your stay in Canada.
PR. Although the initials “PR” stand for permanent resident, this term is commonly used to denote that an individual has permanent resident status in Canada. For instance, your friend may tell you, “I finally got my PR after applying a few months ago.” Someone with PR is not a Canadian citizen.
Temporary residents (TR) are foreign nationals who have been authorized to enter Canada on a temporary basis.
At Garson Immigration Law, we are exclusively dedicated to the practice of immigration law. We understand that waiting for your immigration application to be processed can be stressful. Our immigration lawyers can help successfully guide you through the immigration process and find solutions for your individual immigration needs.
We work to find practical solutions for our clients in all immigration matters, including permanent residence, inadmissibility, and US immigration. If you have any questions about an immigration application, do not hesitate to contact us online or call us at 416-321-2860.
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